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International patent treaties


Various international treaties regulate aspects within the patent system. They have determined a significant part of the content of the current Patents Act 1995.

TreatyYear of formationMost important aspects
Paris Convention (implemented in the Patent Act 1995) Paris 1883- Principle of assimilation
- Regulations for right of priority
- Exhibition priority
- Foundation of national agencies
WIPO Treaty Stockholm 1967Founding of World Intellectual Property Organization
Strasbourg Treaty (implemented in the Patent Act 1995)Strasbourg 1963- Harmonisation of national patent acts
- Substantive law
Strasbourg Agreement 1971- International classification of patents
Community Patent Convention (has not yet entered into force)Luxembourg 1975- Introduction of community patent
- Additional effect: harmonisation of national patent acts
Cooperation Treaty
Washington 1970- Regulation of international application procedure
- Novelty search is carried out centrally
European Patent Convention
Munich 1973/2000- Regulations for the application and granting of European patents by the European Patent Office
- Centralisation of the patenting process within Europe
- additional effect: harmonization of national patent acts
- Also for Member States outside of the EU (such as Türkiyeand Switzerland)
- Radically amended in 2000 (entered into force on 13 December 2007)
London Agreement re. EPC
(Translations Protocol)
(implemented in the Patent Act 1995)
London 2000- Requirements that can be placed upon the translation of European patents
- In force since 1 May 2008
Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of International Property Rights (TRIPS)Marrakech 1994- Requirements for (minimum) patent protection and enforcement of patent rights in contracting states
- Harmonisation of national patent acts
- Annex to WTO agreement
Directive for biotechnological inventions (implemented in the Patent Act 1995)
(see downloads)
Brussels 1998- Regulations for the patentability of biotechnological inventions
- Harmonisation of national patent acts
Regulation relating to the granting of supplementary protection certificates
Brussels 1992/1996- Regulation for additional protection of medicines and crop protection products
Treaty of Budapest1977- International recognition of the deposit of micro-organisms for the purpose of the grant procedure
Enforcement guideline
(see downloads)
Brussels 2004- Enforcement of intellectual property rights
- Harmonisation of national patent acts


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