Bringing Offshore Wind Energy to Shore
We bring the electricity generated from offshore wind farms to land via the offshore grid. We call this 'landing'. The Dutch government is investigating new ways to do this and integrate the electricity into the energy system.
Cable connections alone are no longer sufficient to bring the generated electricity at sea to land. Our future energy system requires more flexibility. On this page we take you through the plans for landing offshore wind energy in the future and what this means for wind farm developers and grid operators.
Development Framework (Ontwikkelkader)
The Development Framework for offshore wind energy outlines the functional requirements and the technical plan of the offshore high-voltage grid. This gives wind farm developers guidance for designing wind farms. It also outlines the task for the network operator of this grid. TenneT has been the network operator of the offshore grid (information in Dutch) since 2016.
The Development Framework is prescribed in the Electricity Act. The first version was adopted by the Council of Ministers on July 1, 2016, while the latest version was approved on June 10, 2022.
The Ministry of Economic Affairs and Climate Policy (EZK) updates the Development Framework when necessary. For example, if there are new wind energy areas. In principle, the functional requirements and the technical plan of the offshore grid will not change. This way we ensure standardisation and thus cost savings. This gives wind farm developers certainty that they will not have to adjust their designs later.
View the Development Framework:
Investigate landing possibilities
How can the energy from future offshore projects best be brought ashore? In 2018, the most promising landing locations and routes were investigated. These have been outlined in the Survey of the Landfall of Offshore Grids (Verkenning Aanlanding Netten op Zee, VANOZ - information in Dutch).
With various government coordination procedures, we then started the landfall of multiple offshore wind energy projects. This procedure is stated in the Spatial Planning Act, § 3.6.3 and regulates the decision-making process for major energy projects (information in Dutch).
The Survey of the Landfall of Offshore Grids is now called the Programme for the Investigation of Cable Landing Points for Offshore Wind Energy (Programma Verbindingen Aanlanding Windenergie op Zee, VAWOZ). Through VAWOZ, we look at how energy from future projects can best be brought ashore between 2031 and 2040. This considers:
- Form (electron or hydrogen molecules)
- Mode of transport (cable, tube or ship)
- Where the energy can be brought (where is the demand for energy the greatest)
Read more about VAWOZ (information in Dutch)
A separate programme has been set up for the Eemshaven landfall location: Eemshaven Offshore Wind Energy Connection Programme (Programma Aansluiting Wind op Zee, PAWOZ Eemshaven). PAWOZ is investigating the possibilities for landing 4.7 GW of offshore wind energy by end 2031 as well as options beyond that.
Read more about PAWOZ (information in Dutch)
Future energy system
The generation of energy from offshore wind is important because it provides us with sustainable energy in the future. We also have focus on the balance between energy supply (generation) and demand (use) and the connection between the energy infrastructure at sea and on land: the transport, storage and distribution of various energy carriers such as electricity and (hydrogen) gas. This requires a system approach.
Energy system 2050
To develop a new energy system, the Ministry of Economic Affairs and Climate Policy (EZK) started the National Energy System Plan (Nationaal Plan Energiesysteem, NPE). The programme includes drawing up a National Energy System Plan (Nationaal Plan Energiesysteem). This plan outlines how the Netherlands is developing an energy system fit for a climate-neutral society.
The National Energy System Plan contains a long-term vision for the energy system in 2050 and how we will get there. The plan is updated every 5 years. This enables us to respond effectively to innovations and social developments. The plan also states what contribution the Government and other authorities (municipalities, provinces) must make.
Read more about the National Energy System Plan (information in Dutch)
- Ministry of Economic Affairs and Climate Policy